ORGANISATION OF LIFE

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

 

1.1. Background

            The study of life extends from the microscopic scale of the molecules and cells that make up organisms to the global scale of the entire living planet. We can divide this enormous range into different levels of biological organization. Each level is a development from the level below it.

When we examine this hierarchy, we will see that the special properties, called attributes emergen (emergen properties, new properties), will emerge from these structures at every level. These properties generated by interactions between components.

Because the properties of life emerge from complex organization, scientists seeking to understand biological systems confront a dilemma. On the one hand, we cannot fully explain a higher level of order by breaking it down into its parts. A dissected animal no longer functions; a cell reduced to its chemical ingredients is no longer a cell. Disrupting a living system interferes with its functioning. On the other hand, something as complex as an organism or a cell cannot be analyzed without  taking it apart.

 

1.2. Question

From the fact above, we get some questions. There are:

  1. How is the hierarchy of life?
  2. What is the function learning hierarchy of life ?

1.3. Purpose

The purpose of preparing this paper are :

  1. To Know the hierarchy of life
  2. To know the function learning hierarchy of life

1.4. Preparation Method

            The method that used in this paper is literature method. After the data is collected then analyzed and identified in accordance with the formulation of the problem. After that the data discussed together and thus can be drawn some conclusions and give advice for the problem.

1.5. Preparation Systematic

Systematic in the preparation of this paper is divided into three chapters :

CHAPTER I   :is an introduction that consists of :

Background of the problem, Formulation of the problems, purpose of preparation, preparation method and preparation systematic. This is intended to provide an overview about the background of the problem and the solving solutions. And this chapter is expected to make easier study in the next chapter.

CHAPTER II  :In the Chapter 2,   discusses the hierarchy of life and study the function of the level of life.

CHAPTER  III: Furthermore, In the Chapter III is a closing which contains conclusions that author took from the previous chapter descriptions, and suggestion for readers. Hopeful these suggestion useful.

CHAPTER II

DISCUSSIONS

 

2.1. Hierarchy Of Life

As mentioned earlier, that life has a structure very complex and organized, ranging from the smallest atom to the Biosphere. The structure of life in various levels can be explained as follows:

2.1.1  Atom

Each element consists of a certain kind of atom that is different from the atoms of any other element An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.

Atoms are so small that it would take about a million of them to stretch across the period printed at the end of this sentence. We symbolize atoms with the same abbreviation used for the element

that is made up of those atoms. For example, the symbol O stands for both the element oxygen and a single oxygen atom. Although the atom is the smallest unit having the properties of its element, these tiny bits of matter are composed of even smaller parts, called subatomic particles. An atom is made up of protons and neutrons located in a central nucleus and the nucleus is surrounded by electrons.

2.1.2 Molecules

The molecule is a combination of several elements with
Certain comparative figures. The same elements come together to form molecules of atomic elements Ex. O atoms bind to each other to form O2 (oxygen), whereas the different elements to form compounds such atomic atoms O (oxygen) binding with H (hydrogen) to form H2O (water)

2.2.3 Organelles

Organele is Any of several membrane- enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. the various functional orgenelles make up cells. Example : Cloroplasts, Lisosom, Ribosom etc.

 

 

2.2.4 Cells

Cells is the lowest level of organization that can perform activities required for life. Cell composed by organelles with various function. Simple unicellular beings, such as protozoa, bacteria and algae, make the metabolism in a cell. Multicellular living things, like plants and animals, prepared by a variety of cells that have different shapes and functions

2.2.5 Tissues

An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both Ex : muscular, blood, epidermis, etc.

2.2.6 Organs

A spesialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues.

2.2.7 Organ Systems

A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.

2.2.8 Organism

Individual living thing are called organisms. It composed of many organ systems

2.2.9 Populations

A localized group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring. A population consists of all the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specified area.

2.2.10 Communities

The entire of populations that lived in the time and in the specified area

2.2.11 Ecosystems

An ecosystem consists of all the living thing in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with whidl life interacts, such as soil, water, atmospheric gases, and light.

2.2.12 Biomes

Biomes composed of ecosystems  in a wide area.

2.2.13 The Bioshpere

The biosphere is the total of all of Earth’s ecosystems

2.2. Functions of Learning Hierarchy of Life

Because the properties of life emerge from complex organization, the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study-is a powerful strategy in biology. For example, by studying the molecular structure of DNA that had been extracted from cells, James Watson and Francis Crick inferred, in 1953, how this molecule could serve as the chemical basis of inheritance.

6 thoughts on “ORGANISATION OF LIFE

  1. What a great priviledge 4 me 2 see a ful project write up. I like this, beautiful!!!

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